Indirect Opthalmoscopy is the most important technique in a ophthalmic clinician's toolbox, allowing them to view desired portions of a patient's retina (the inner tissue of the eyeball which is light sensitive and responsible for vision). This is an invaluable technique to rapidly look for irregularities, pathologies and any other conditions in the retina which may be potentially vision-threatening. These images are termed "fundus" images.

The clinician is able to see a 30 degree field of view at a time. Examination of the retinal tissue can reveal a great deal about the person's present state of health.

Where high-resolution images are required to be taken for diagnosing disorders in the retina, indirect ophthalmoscopy cannot be used. Instead, high-end benchtop devices exist (such as that shown on the right) which capture and record these images. These devices require the patient to be seated and to rest their chin on the device to keep their head in a fixed position relative to the device. A flash of light captures the image after proper alignment is achieved. This is called "fundus photography".